This lesson will try to give you all necessary information about the personal pronouns in Turkish Grammar. Personal pronouns are used as replacement for name of the person or subject.
Before we dive into lesson, it is highly recommended that you have studied the previous lessons. İf you have some questions in your mind during the lesson, you can visit the Turkish grammar page
Similar to English Grammar, Turkish Grammar has types of personal pronouns. In this lesson, we will learn the subjective (Nominative pronouns) in Turkish grammar.
Subjective (Nominative) pronouns in Turkish grammar
Subject pronouns are used as subjects in the Turkish sentences. Let’s have a look at the Turkish subjective
|Second plural||Siz||You (p)|
- Turkish has only “O” for third singular different than English (He ,She, It)
How to use subjective (Nominative pronouns) in sentence
in previous lessons, we learnt how is the word order in Turkish and we need personal suffixes for building sentences in Turkish. We will use the same rules for the types of pronouns. Only the suffixes to be added will change and there are some few tips to keep in your mind.
İn the below table, you will see the appropriate personal suffixes for the used subjective pronouns.
|Ben||(y)*-im, -ım -um, -üm,|
|Sen||-sin, -sın -sun, -sün,|
|O||-dır, -dir -dur, -dür, -tır, -tir -tur, -tür,|
|Biz||(y)*-iz, -ız -uz, -üz,|
|Siz||-siniz, -sınız -sunuz, -sünüz,|
- You see that there are options for personal suffixes and to choose the right one is related with vowel harmony rule in Turkish.
- In Turkish two vowel do not come next to each other. Sometimes when the personal suffixes are added to the word, you may need to add “y” between word and personal suffix to prevent that two vowels come next to each other. You will see examples related with this too.
|Vowel harmony||Demonstrative suffix|
|a – ı||–(y)ım, -sın, -dır, –(y)ız, -sınız,|
|e – i||–(y)im, -sin, -dir, –(y)iz, -siniz,|
|u – o|| –(y)um, -sun, -dur, –(y)uz, |
|ü – ö|| –(y)üm, -sün, -dür, –(y)üz, |
Now lets have a look at the examples for each subjective (dominative) nouns. Do not forget to examine the suffixes and vowel harmony in the sentences.
Ben – I
|Ben evdeyim.||I am at home.|
|Ben hastayım.||I am ill.|
|Ben yorgunum||I am tired.|
|Ben üzgünüm.||I am sad.|
|Sen evdesin.||You are at home.|
|Sen hastasın.||You are ill.|
|Sen yorgunsun.||You are tired.|
|Sen üzgünsün.||You are sad.|
O – He/She/It
|O evde(dir).||He/She/It is at home.|
|O hasta(dır).||He/She/It is ill.|
|O yorgun(dur).||He/She/It is tired.|
|O üzgün(dür).||He/She/It is sad.|
|O kitap(tır).||It is book.|
Biz – We
|Biz evdeyiz.||We are at home.|
|Biz hastayız.||We are ill.|
|Biz yorgunuz||We are tired.|
|Biz üzgünüz.||We are sad.|
Siz – You (p)
|Siz evdesiniz.||You(p) are at home.|
|Siz hastasınız.||You are ill.|
|Siz yorgunsunuz||You are tired.|
|Siz üzgünsünüz.||You are sad.|
Onlar – They
|Onlar evde(dir).||They are at home.|
|Onlar hasta(dır).||They are ill.|
|Onlar yorgun(dur).||They are tired.|
|Onlar üzgün(dür).||They are sad.|
|Onlar kitap(tır).||They are books.|
Here are some extra examples :
- Ben bugün İstanbul’dayım. ( Today ı am in Istanbul.)
- Ben senin ile çok mutluyum. ( I am very happy with you.)
- Sen çok güzelsin. (You are very beautiful.)
- Biz Türkiye’de mutluyuz. (We are happy in Turkey.)
- Siz evde misiniz? (Are you at home?)
Personal pronoun exercises in Turkish
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